Italy and Africa

external image Italy_flag.gif
The Light blue color represents the countries conquered by Italy
The Light blue color represents the countries conquered by Italy

Italian Conquered Countries:
North Africa (now Libya)
Eritrea
Somaliland (now Somalia)

Scramble for Africa (aka. Race for Africa, or African Fever) is an invasion of highly powered European countries during the New Imperialism period, that is between 1881 and World War I of 1914. Italy is one of the many great European countries that would conquer the parts of Africa. Italy begins to accept the policy of Imperialism, because like many other European countries, such as Great Britain or France, they were expanding their territories all over the world, and creating small or large colonies. Italy also wanted to expand their territory as well, so they decide to conquer parts of Africa. They also realize that having more colonies would improve their economy and increase strength in government power. For Italy, Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini and Victor Emmanuel III would be the men in charge of the invasions in Africa.

Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini

Victor Emmanuel III
Victor Emmanuel III


Conquered African Nations
Italy decides that they would conquer northern part of Africa. At 1889, Italy first decides to conquer Somaliland (Somalia as of today). Then in 1912, Italy would take over North Africa (Libya as of today). Beside the two countries that Italy was able to conquer, Eritrea was already known as one of the Kingdoms of Italy during the 1890s. The reason behind why Italy is only able to conquer little amount of African countries is because many other European countries are racing to take over as much land as they can as well. During this race, all countries must fight for each other to see which country can "show off" how many more countries then can conquer.

Reasons of Controlling
Italy and along with many other European countries wants to conquer Africa, because they know that having more territory means that they would have more power and improved economy. Along with the ideas of more power and improved economy, conquering Africa meant that there would be more trading with lots of other countries. On a basic scale, conquering other lands won't just bring power and improved economy, but the resources in Africa would. In Africa, there is abundant amount of natural resources that the Italians could use back in their country, such as powering their machines or improving their technology.

Rulings of the Colonies
Like its home country, Italy, the African colonies that are owned by Africa rules very much the same. Sovereignty, the quality of having supreme, independent authority over a geographic area, such as territory, is the rule that all the Italian powers exercised. It is a rule where one with a greater power will have majority of all the powers. The Sovereignty rule has been existing for many centuries. It was established at about 1380s. Aside from the Monarchy in Italy, Sovereignty rules Italy for a very long time.

Obstacles Faced for Italy
Along with many other superior European countries, Italy has to control many obstacles as Italy is not the only country that wants to conquer Africa. Italy has to fight against other countries, such as Great Britain, France, or Germany. Whether it's in the battlefield or in the world of politics, Italy tries and fights the best they can, even if it means conquering a little part of the land. European countries aren't the only problem towards Italy. The natives of the African nations aren't too happy to find that another nation of greater power is taking over their land. Without any choice, the African nations forces to surrender, because Italy has far more greater military than any African nations do. As time passes by, the conquered African nations rises up and creates a rebellion to counter act against the military of Italy. However, the counter act fails and the rebellion has no choice but to surrender, sit still, and hope that something good will come to them.

Independence
For the nation of Eritrea, Italy was able to govern 15 more years before they would gain their independence. In 1947, Eritrea would finally gain their independence. On 1949, UN General Assembly agrees that North Africa should be an independent country before January 1, 1952. Then, on the day of Christmas Eve of 1951, North Africa gains their independence and renames their country Libya. In 1960, just like Eritrea, Italy was able to rule Somliland for 15 more years before they could gain their independence. The British and the Italian Somaliland would unite and be known as Somali Republic. Later in the years, Somali Republic would also be known as Somalia. For all the countries that were once ruled by Italy would gain their independence as World World II ends.


Bibliography


Abidor, Mitch. Imperialism and Socialism in Italy. 16 11 2010 <http://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1915/aug/x03.htm>.

Farlex. The Free Dictionary . 2010. 16 11 2010 <http://encyclopedia.farlex.com/imperialism,+19th-century+European>.

Wikipedia. Scramble for Africa. 12 11 2010. 16 11 2010 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scramble_for_Africa>.

Wikipedia. Italian Libya. 2010 11 30 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italian_Libya>.

Scramble for Africa. 2010 11 12 2010 11 16 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scramble_for_Africa>.

Somalia Independence. 2010 11 30 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Somalia#Independence>.

For original sources of pictures, click on the picture.